Hubble tension or a transition of the Cepheid SnIa calibrator parameters?. (arXiv:2109.04406v2 [astro-ph.CO] UPDATED)

<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Perivolaropoulos_L/0/1/0/all/0/1">Leandros Perivolaropoulos</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Skara_F/0/1/0/all/0/1">Foteini Skara</a>

We re-analyze the Cepheid data used to infer the value of $H_0$ by

calibrating SnIa. We do not enforce a universal value of the empirical Cepheid

calibration parameters $R_W$ (Cepheid Wesenheit color-luminosity parameter) and

$M_H^{W}$ (Cepheid Wesenheit H-band absolute magnitude). Instead, we allow for

variation of either of these parameters for each individual galaxy. We also

consider the case where these parameters have two universal values: one for low

galactic distances $D<D_c$ and one for high galactic distances $D>D_c$ where

$D_c$ is a critical transition distance. We find hints for a $3sigma$ level

mismatch between the low and high galactic distance parameter values. We then

use AIC and BIC criteria to compare and rank the following types of models:

Base models: Universal values for $R_W$ and $M_H^{W}$ (no parameter variation),

I Individual fitted galactic $R_W$ with a universal fitted $M_H^{W}$, II

Universal fixed $R_W$ with individual fitted galactic $M_H^{W}$, III Universal

fitted $R_W$ with individual fitted galactic $M_H^{W}$, IV Two universal fitted

$R_W$ (near and far) with one universal fitted $M_H^{W}$, V Universal fitted

$R_W$ with two universal fitted $M_H^{W}$ (near and far), VI Two universal

fitted $R_W$ with two universal fitted $M_H^{W}$ (near and far). We find that

the AIC and BIC criteria consistently favor model IV instead of the commonly

used Base model where no variation is allowed for the Cepheid empirical

parameters. The best fit value of the SnIa absolute magnitude $M_B$ and of

$H_0$ implied by the favored model IV is consistent with the inverse distance

ladder calibration based on the CMB sound horizon $H_0=67.4pm

0.5,km,s^{-1},Mpc^{-1}$. Thus in the context of the favored model IV the

Hubble crisis is not present. This model may imply the presence of a

fundamental physics transition taking place at a time more recent than

$100,Myrs$ ago.

We re-analyze the Cepheid data used to infer the value of $H_0$ by

calibrating SnIa. We do not enforce a universal value of the empirical Cepheid

calibration parameters $R_W$ (Cepheid Wesenheit color-luminosity parameter) and

$M_H^{W}$ (Cepheid Wesenheit H-band absolute magnitude). Instead, we allow for

variation of either of these parameters for each individual galaxy. We also

consider the case where these parameters have two universal values: one for low

galactic distances $D<D_c$ and one for high galactic distances $D>D_c$ where

$D_c$ is a critical transition distance. We find hints for a $3sigma$ level

mismatch between the low and high galactic distance parameter values. We then

use AIC and BIC criteria to compare and rank the following types of models:

Base models: Universal values for $R_W$ and $M_H^{W}$ (no parameter variation),

I Individual fitted galactic $R_W$ with a universal fitted $M_H^{W}$, II

Universal fixed $R_W$ with individual fitted galactic $M_H^{W}$, III Universal

fitted $R_W$ with individual fitted galactic $M_H^{W}$, IV Two universal fitted

$R_W$ (near and far) with one universal fitted $M_H^{W}$, V Universal fitted

$R_W$ with two universal fitted $M_H^{W}$ (near and far), VI Two universal

fitted $R_W$ with two universal fitted $M_H^{W}$ (near and far). We find that

the AIC and BIC criteria consistently favor model IV instead of the commonly

used Base model where no variation is allowed for the Cepheid empirical

parameters. The best fit value of the SnIa absolute magnitude $M_B$ and of

$H_0$ implied by the favored model IV is consistent with the inverse distance

ladder calibration based on the CMB sound horizon $H_0=67.4pm

0.5,km,s^{-1},Mpc^{-1}$. Thus in the context of the favored model IV the

Hubble crisis is not present. This model may imply the presence of a

fundamental physics transition taking place at a time more recent than

$100,Myrs$ ago.

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